Common Name/Other Name: Hematomunia, heavy menstrual period, heavy menstrual bleeding
Menorrhagia is the abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period at regular intervals. It may be associated with dysmenorrhea and blood loss. It can be caused by abnormal hormone regulation, blood clotting or disorder of the uterine lining.
Commonly Prescribed Drugs
- NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen) provides pain-killing, fever-inducing and anti-inflammatory (in high dose) effects. Side effects: Stomach indigestion, stomach ulcer and bleeding, anemia, heart failure, high blood pressure. Drug interactions: Diuretics, lithium, ACE inhibitors, anticoagulants, anti-diabetic drugs, cardiac glycosides, corticosteroids, other NSAIDs.
- Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic that prevents excessive blood loss by inhibiting the activation of plasminogen to plasmin (responsible for the degradation of fibrin, a protein that forms blood clots). Side effects: Bowel disorder, hypersensitivity reactions or intolerance. Drug interactions: Anticoagulants, fibrinolytic drugs, penicillins.
- Iron supplements (ferrous salts) help manage blood loss. Side effects: Black stool, constipation, stomach irritation, temporary staining on teeth. Drug interactions: Certain antibiotics, tetracycline, thyroid replacement drugs, levodopa, methyldopa, bisphosphates.
- Oral progestogens (norethisterone, progesterone, pedroxyprogesterone) help correct hormonal imbalance. Precaution: Fluid retention, decrease glucose tolerance, weight change, drowsiness, dizziness, circulatory disorders, history of psychic depression. Side effects: Milk discharge from the breast, itchy rash, acne, blocking of blood clot, menstrual irregularities, drowsiness, headache, nausea, mental depression. Drug interactions: Estrogens, hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs (carbamazepine, barbiturates, antiepileptic drugs), griseofulvin.
- Hormonal IUD releases levonorgestrel which decreases menstrual cramps and bleeding, and makes the uterine lining thin.