Any condition, factor, or disease that causes injury to or damages the nerves associated with urination, thereby disrupting proper nerve function, can cause UI. Some of these diseases are:
● Diabetic neuropathy or damage to the nerves caused by diabetes mellitus can lead to bladder control problems.
● Diseases of the central nervous system, such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis, among other illnesses, as well as spinal cord injury, which may disrupt nerve signals to the urinary bladder.
● Overactive bladder, which is basically the loss of muscle or bladder coordination, resulting in the release of urine at the wrong or the most inopportune time, may also be caused by nerve problems.
● Prostate problems. Problems in the male reproductive system may also cause urinary incontinence. If nerve problems are not likely the cause of UI, urologists examine the prostate to determine if it is behind the urinary accidents. Among the prostate gland conditions are:
1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or the enlargement of the prostate gland which commonly takes place as a man ages. The enlargement of the prostate may squeeze or constrict the urethra or the tube that brings urine out of the penis, thereby affecting control over or frequency of urinary discharge. Such symptoms may occur when a man reaches the age of 40, and is common when he is in his 60s through his 80s.
2. Radical Prostatectomy or the surgical removal of the entire prostate, usually because of cancer, may lead to urinary and even erectile problems.
3. Radiation treatment for prostate cancer may also cause permanent or temporary bladder problems.
Men with prostate problems are often asked by their urologist to answer a standard questionnaire, either the International Prostate Symptom Score or the American Urological Association Symptom Scale, to determine changes in urinating frequency, urge, and control of the patient. This initial test determines what kind of laboratory test will then be needed to see what treatment option is best for the patient.